Acquisition of knowledge and skills become more efficient, effective, and appealing.
Cost effective, efficient, relevant content, customised and current, performance-based objectives
Multiple teaching and learning applications.
Teacher perspective: objectives - ILOs - teaching activities - assessments
Teacher's task: create a learning environment that support the learning activities appropriate to achieving the desired learning outcomes.
Student perspective: assessment - learning activities - outcome
Student construct meaning through relevant learning activities. Meaning is not something imparted or transmitted from teacher to learner, but is something learners have to create for themselves.
A helpful way to design a course:
Identify desired results - Goals
Organize your course around your core learning goals to foster enduring understandings in your students. Adapt your goals according to student feedback and readiness.
Content Goals: What knowledge do you want students to attain? Start with a broad perspective, considering all that you want students to become aware of and then narrow your selection to fit the parameters of your course.
Skill Goals: What are the abilities you want students to attain. What should students be able to do with their learning after your course? How can they apply their new knowledge?
Determine acceptable evidence - Progress
Assess student's ability to meet the learning goals, both at the beginning of the course and throughout the course. Do they understand the topics? What progress are they making? What kind of assessments will enable students to demonstrate that they are making progress toward the course's learning goals?
Formative Assessment: Formative assessments provide students with frequent, informal opportunities to re-think and revise. Learning from mistakes leads to ongoing improvement in understanding.
Fit & Feasibility: Give assignments and tests that both teach and test the learning you value most. Do your tests and assignments fit the learning goals you have set? For example, if you want students to be able to debate both sides of an issue, are your assessments giving them the opportunity to demonstrate that knowledge and skills? Also, are your assessments feasible for both you and your students? Is the workload you are planning reasonable, strategically placed and sustainable?
Plan learning experiences and instruction - Practice
In class sessions and homework assignments, give students a chance to practice their learning - to engage new material and apply it. Adapt your teaching strategies as needed, according to the ongoing assessments you do of student progress. Plan learning activities that support the learning goals of the course:
Point your students to exactly what you want them to learn. Provide them with a strong foundational structure on which to build further learning by presenting content in a well-organized fashion.
What are the best problems or questions for developing your student's ability to meet your learning goals? How can they practice engaging content and skillful using their new learning?
Merrill's First Principles of Instruction
Many current instructional design models suggest that the most effective learning environments are those that are problem-based and involve the student in four distinct phases of learning.
The ADDIE model is at the very core of instructional design and is the basis of instructional systems design.
Dick and Carey
The model addresses instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction. According to Dick and Carey, "Components such as the instructor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning and performance environments interact with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes".
Kemp's Instructional Design Model
The Jerold Kemp instructional design method and model defines nine different components of an instructional design and at the same time adopts a continuous implementation/evaluation model.
Gagné's 9 Events Instruction
Gagné created a nine-step process called the events of instruction, which correlate to and address the conditions of learning. See the nine events of instruction below:
According to John Keller's ARCS Model of Motivational Design, there are four steps for promoting and sustaining motivation in the learning process:
Motivation Opportunity Ability Model (MOA)
|Goals||What are my course goals? What do I want my students to learn primarily?
|Levels of performance||At what levels do I want my students to perform?
|Activities||What class activities help my students meet these goals and levels?
|Support||What support will I give my students to enhance their success in meeting goals and levels?
|Assignments||What assignments will I use to evaluate the success my students have in meeting goals and levels?
|Uniformity of assignments||How much uniformity of assignments will best help my students meet these goals and levels?
|Evaluation||What evaluation approach will best help my students to meet these goals and levels?
|Goal and level evaluation||What evalutation unit for each assignment is consonant with these goals and levels?
|Learning environment||What type of class atmosphere will foster students' success in meeting these goals and levels?
|Participation||What kind of participation will foster students' success in meeting these goals and levels?
|Policy||What policy for class attendance will foster students' success in meeting goals and levels?
|Pace of the course||What pace of the course will foster students' success in meeting these goals and levels
|Achievement||What criteria will I use to determine the amount of success a student achieved over the term?
|Grading||How will I calculate final grades for my students?
|Expectations||What qualities do I expect my students to possess as they enter my class?
|Behavior||What behaviors do I expect of my students while they are in class?
|Flexibility||What flexibility / contingencies have I planned in case my students don't meet these expectations?
|Informing||How will I convey all of the above information to my students?