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Studium Biologie For lecturers

Instructional Design

Student's benefit:
Acquisition of knowledge and skills become more efficient, effective, and appealing.

Teaching enrichment:
Cost effective, efficient, relevant content, customised and current, performance-based objectives

Multiple teaching and learning applications.

Constructive Alignment after John Biggs

Teacher perspective: objectives - ILOs - teaching activities - assessments

Teacher's task: create a learning environment that support the learning activities appropriate to achieving the desired learning outcomes.

  1. Defining the intended outcomes ILOs (declarative knowledge, functioning knowledge)
  2. Choosing teaching and learning activities likely to lead the ILOs
  3. Assessing student's actual learning outcomes to see how well they match what was intended
  4. Arriving at final grade

Student perspective: assessment - learning activities - outcome

Student construct meaning through relevant learning activities. Meaning is not something imparted or transmitted from teacher to learner, but is something learners have to create for themselves.

PDF Constructive Alignment (PDF, 60 KB)


Course Design

A helpful way to design a course:


Identify desired results - Goals

Organize your course around your core learning goals to foster enduring understandings in your students. Adapt your goals according to student feedback and readiness.

Content Goals: What knowledge do you want students to attain? Start with a broad perspective, considering all that you want students to become aware of and then narrow your selection to fit the parameters of your course.

Skill Goals: What are the abilities you want students to attain. What should students be able to do with their learning after your course? How can they apply their new knowledge?


Determine acceptable evidence - Progress

Assess student's ability to meet the learning goals, both at the beginning of the course and throughout the course. Do they understand the topics? What progress are they making? What kind of assessments will enable students to demonstrate that they are making progress toward the course's learning goals?

Formative Assessment: Formative assessments provide students with frequent, informal opportunities to re-think and revise. Learning from mistakes leads to ongoing improvement in understanding.

Fit & Feasibility: Give assignments and tests that both teach and test the learning you value most. Do your tests and assignments fit the learning goals you have set? For example, if you want students to be able to debate both sides of an issue, are your assessments giving them the opportunity to demonstrate that knowledge and skills? Also, are your assessments feasible for both you and your students? Is the workload you are planning reasonable, strategically placed and sustainable?


Plan learning experiences and instruction - Practice

In class sessions and homework assignments, give students a chance to practice their learning - to engage new material and apply it. Adapt your teaching strategies as needed, according to the ongoing assessments you do of student progress. Plan learning activities that support the learning goals of the course:

Point your students to exactly what you want them to learn. Provide them with a strong foundational structure on which to build further learning by presenting content in a well-organized fashion.

What are the best problems or questions for developing your student's ability to meet your learning goals? How can they practice engaging content and skillful using their new learning?

Indstructional Design Models

Merrill's First Principles of Instruction
Many current instructional design models suggest that the most effective learning environments are those that are problem-based and involve the student in four distinct phases of learning.

  • Activation of prior experience
  • Demonstration of skills
  • Application of skills
  • Integration of these skills into real world activities

ADDIE model
The ADDIE model is at the very core of instructional design and is the basis of instructional systems design.

  • Analysis
  • Design
  • Development
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

Dick and Carey
The model addresses instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction. According to Dick and Carey, "Components such as the instructor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning and performance environments interact with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes".

  • Identify Instructional Goals
  • Conduct Instructional Analysis
  • Identify Entry Behaviors and Learner Characteristics
  • Write Performance Objectives
  • Develop Criterion-Referenced Test Items
  • Develop Instructional Strategy
  • Develop and Select Instructional Meterials
  • Develop and Conduct Formative Evaluation
  • Develp and Conduct Summative Evaluation

Kemp's Instructional Design Model
The Jerold Kemp instructional design method and model defines nine different components of an instructional design and at the same time adopts a continuous implementation/evaluation model.

  • Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program
  • Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning.
  • Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes
  • State instructional objectives for the learner
  • Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning
  • Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives
  • Plan the instructional message and delivery
  • Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives
  • Select resources to support instruction and learning activities

Gagné's 9 Events Instruction
Gagné created a nine-step process called the events of instruction, which correlate to and address the conditions of learning. See the nine events of instruction below:

  • Gain attention
  • Inform learner of objectives
  • Stimulate recall of prior learning
  • Present stimulus material
  • Provide learner guidance
  • Elicit performance
  • Provide feedback
  • Assess performance
  • Enhance retention transfer

Motivational Design Models

ARCS Model

According to John Keller's ARCS Model of Motivational Design, there are four steps for promoting and sustaining motivation in the learning process:

  • Attention
  • Relevance
  • Confidence
  • Satisfaction

Motivation Opportunity Ability Model (MOA)

  • Motivation
  • Opportunity
  • Ability


Topic Questions
Goals What are my course goals? What do I want my students to learn primarily?
  • Content (facts, applications, theories, etc.)
  • Skills (writing skills, library skills, computer skills, research skills, critical thinking, problem-solving, etc.)
  • Attitudes (appreciation for field/subject, global perspective, tolerance, etc.)
  • Other, or some specified combination of the above
Levels of performance At what levels do I want my students to perform?
  • Knowledge (ability to recall facts)
  • Comprehension (ability to understand ideas anti translate them into other formats
  • Application (ability to use ideas in particular and concrete situations)
  • Analysis (ability to dissect ideas into constituent parts to make the organization clear)
  • Synthesis (ability to integrate parts into a unified whole)
  • Evaluation (ability to judge the value of an idea, procedure, etc., using appropriate criteria)
Activities What class activities help my students meet these goals and levels?
  • Lecture
  • Demonstration
  • Debate
  • Case methods
  • Role-play
  • Games, simulations
  • Other, or some specified combination of the above
  • Large group discussion / problem-solving
  • Small group discussion / problem-solving
  • Laboratory exercise /experiments
  • Programmed learning
  • Library research
Support What support will I give my students to enhance their success in meeting goals and levels?
  • How is your focus balanced between learning outcomes and learner satisfaction?
  • Administrative handouts (syllabus, course policies, etc.)
  • Content handouts (outlines of lectures, illustrative examples, tables, charts, etc.)
  • References, bibliographies
  • Models, demonstrations
  • Individual conferences
  • Other, or some specified combination of the above
  • Practice sessions
  • Review sessions
Assignments What assignments will I use to evaluate the success my students have in meeting goals and levels?
  • Exams, quizzes
  • Papers
  • Projects
  • Other, or some specified combination of the above
  • Oral presentations
  • Performance of skills
Uniformity of assignments How much uniformity of assignments will best help my students meet these goals and levels?
  • Before launch, who will check that all course content and features work as desired?
  • Standardized (students have no choice)
  • Menu (students have choices from a fixed list)
  • Individualized (students have large range of choice)
  • Some combination of the above
Evaluation What evaluation approach will best help my students to meet these goals and levels?
  • Formative for feedback
  • Summative for grades and evaluation
Goal and level evaluation What evalutation unit for each assignment is consonant with these goals and levels?
  • Individual (each student works independently)
  • Small group (students work in pairs, triads, groups)
  • Some combination of the above
Learning environment What type of class atmosphere will foster students' success in meeting these goals and levels?
  • Competitive
  • Cooperative
  • Some combination of the two
Participation What kind of participation will foster students' success in meeting these goals and levels?
  • Teacher, 95%; students, 5% (lecture with an occasional student question)
  • Teacher, 75%; students, 25% (lecture with some group discussion)
  • Teacher, 50%; students, 50% (teacher-lead discussion, as in a seminar)
  • Teacher, 10%; students, 90% (student-designed and -directed projects)
  • Some combination of the above
Policy What policy for class attendance will foster students' success in meeting goals and levels?
  • Mandatory and graded
  • Expected
  • Mandatory, but not graded
  • Voluntary
Pace of the course What pace of the course will foster students' success in meeting these goals and levels
  • Fixed (no deviations from syllabus)
  • Flexible (accommodate to skills students bring to class)
  • Some combination of the two
Achievement What criteria will I use to determine the amount of success a student achieved over the term?
  • Achievement of preset goals (comparison with standards)
  • Achievement of norm (comparison with others)
  • Progress made from the beginning of the term (comparison with self)
  • Some combination of the above
Grading How will I calculate final grades for my students?
  • Percentage of work satisfactorily completed
  • Contracts made levity individual students
  • Competency-based education
  • Some combination of the above
Expectations What qualities do I expect my students to possess as they enter my class?
  • Prerequisite content
  • Prerequisite skills
  • Appreciation for discipline / field
Behavior What behaviors do I expect of my students while they are in class?
  • Willingness to participate in class activities
  • promt and consistent attendance
  • promt and consistent competion of assignments
  • responsibility for the participation of others
Flexibility What flexibility / contingencies have I planned in case my students don't meet these expectations?
  • Reprimands
  • Additional course work
  • adjustment of syllabus
Informing How will I convey all of the above information to my students?
  • Administrative handouts (syllabus, course policies, etc)
  • Content handouts (outlines of lectures, illustrative examples, etc.)
  • Introductory session to course
  • Pretest
  • Verbal and nonverbal cues throughout term
  • Other, or some specified combination of the above

Weiterführende Informationen


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